PCB Physical Guide Before Doing Your PCB Assembly Adventure

When you are using your laptop or other everyday device for that matter, it is easy to take for granted what the inside of the machine is made out of. As they say, if it is out of sight then it is out of mind. The inside mechanisms sure are (out of sight). The usual systems inside machines are printed circuit boards or PCBs.

In this article, we are going to walk you through the different aspects of PCB to guide you in your own adventure of PCB assembly with our help.

First, it is advisable to familiarize ourselves with PCBs. The boards are basically made up of non-conductive solid materials that are then laminated with copper or other metal sheets. These sheets create the surface that is conductive.

The most common board material is the glass-reinforced epoxy, more commonly known as FR-4. Other more complex boards (that are for high performance circuits) use ceramic or PTFE bases that have different fillers. These materials are chosen because they are affordable, flame-resistant, and most importantly, have low conductivity.

Let us move on the layers that will be vital to your PCB assembly. Take note that the most affordable PCBs are the single-sided kind. This type of board is made up of the base material with a single sheet of metal covering the top. Although the single-layer sounds simple, take note that this board, with its characteristic of having just one sheet of metal, offers complications when you try to lay out your PCBs. This happens because of the limited metal that you can work with, especially when you try to cross electrical connections.


On the other side of the coin is the double-sided PCB. This is usually the one that those who experiment in assembling and fabricating FCB work with or try to create. One of the main reasons is that it is less complicated than the single-sided board because it offers another layer of metal to work with. Aside from that, this type of board is largely the most cost-effective kind.

For the more adventurous people, they may want to add another layer. This kind of board allows them to modify their design, making it more compact while also giving them the flexibility to create complicated signal paths. We, at PCBNet, recommend this type to more advanced users who want to manufacture more complicated PCBs with us.

Aside from layers, you also need to become familiar about copper traces to specifically design the board that you want for your own PCB assembly adventure. You can make copper traces by eliminating the solid sheet or part of the base material.

After layers and copper traces, we can now move on to vias. These are useful specifically on electronically connecting one layer to another layer. There are three kinds of vias – blind, buried and through hole. Blind via is a connection of a surface layer to an internal layer, which does not go all the way through the whole board. Buried via, on the other hand, is almost the same with blind via, but you can use it in connection with internal layers. Though hole is the usual kind of via, which is made by drilling through the whole board.

Pcb fabrication

There are other physical parts to consider before starting your PCB design and assembly. These are copper fills, fiducials, silkscreen, and solder mask. Copper fills are used to suppress the noise on the circuitry or disperse heat from the gadget or device. Fiducials are distinct markings on the PCB that let assembly machines adjust themselves accordingly. Silkscreens are layers of the PCB that are added after fabrication. These contain document board information, visual cues, component placement marks, or the brand. Solder mask is the green layer of the board. This is applied after manufacturing to prevent the solder paste from spreading to the other parts of the board. Aside from this purpose, it is sometimes stylized for aesthetic purposes.

Now that you are familiar with the physical components, you need a reputable and experienced PCB supplier such as our company, PCBnet. Luckily, for people who are looking forward to their own adventure in PCB assembly, we can offer supplies or quantities in 5-6 days and production in 2-3 weeks. With the knowledge that you learned from this article, you can now assemble and manufacture your dream PCB with us.

Whether you are a PCB assembly hobbyist or a professional tinkerer, you will most likely have a great experience with us because of our track record of competitive pricing, quality, and on-time delivery. You can join our long list of satisfied customers such as Motorola, Ericsson, Sony Electronics, HP, Intel, Whirlpool, etc. For other relevant information, you can visit our website.

Author Bio:
PCBs have become an important part of a wide range of machineries, computing devices, automobiles, appliances, and other  electronic gadgets. Here www.pcbnet.com you can get best PCB options

Factors To Consider In Custom Military Coins Production

Nowadays, it is a common thing to receive coins or medallions in parties, events, and gatherings that make recipients happy and grateful. Anyone would surely appreciate if a close friend gives him one. Although pre-designed coins are available, customers can still modify the design or make one out from scratch. Customization is charged with an additional fee. Here www.challengecoins4less.com, you can find out more idea about Custom Military Coins.

Custom military coins are usually given as means of gratitude and appreciation to military members. Owners proudly bring their coins wherever they go. When the leader gives the coin to a member, it entails that the unit leader trusts and appreciates a member because of his loyalty and performance.

custom military coins

Producing coins can sometimes be stressful especially during the design process. The design should be creative and symbolic at the same time. With this in mind, given below are the factors to consider in making custom military coins.

• Event

It is a common thing for companies to use a medallion as a token of appreciation in most events like birthday party, retirement party, bachelor events, memorial ceremonies, business conferences, and events where bravery is showcased. As forms of giveaways, it could remind the participants how fruitful the event was.

• Artwork

The design of the coin is crucial as it symbolizes the company or organization and it determines the probable cost of production. Most companies aim is to produce a comprehensive design that can be made at a minimum cost. In addition, uniqueness is what every designer aims for. The design should be unique as it belongs to only one organization. If the coin is to be used in a certain event, the logo or insignia should encompass the theme or purpose of the event. In case the coin shall be given to someone close to you, then it would be better if he/she can relate with the design and it should bring a smile on his face. Images like monuments, flags, sport teams, dates, and cultural symbols may be included in the design and should be given an emphasis.

• Hard or Soft Enamel

Many people often think that hard and soft enamels pertain to the hardness and softness of the medallion. These actually refer to the finishing process done to the coin. In contrast with its name, hard enamel produces a smooth finish as an ample amount of stress is applied through the coin’s edges. Meanwhile, soft enamel produces raised metal forms along the coin’s edges making the coin rough and dimensional. Hard enamel costs higher than soft enamel.

• Number of Pieces

In terms of cost analysis, the more you order, the less money you need to expend. If the purpose of making custom military coins is to give them to your colleagues, family members, and close friends, then you may opt to order small amount of coins. It is better to have a list of recipients if you will order an exact amount. In case the coins are to be distributed in an event, order custom military coins in bulk to acquire a discount from the manufacturer. If the number of attendees is not yet known, then you could do a rough estimate. For instance, there are about hundred participants, then order 125 medallions.

• Plate

This refers to the outer covering of custom military coins. You may choose from black nickel, high-polished silver, antique silver, gold, bronze, and black metal.

• Size

The size of the coin is expressed through its diameter that is usually written in English unit like inches. A challenge coin is usually bigger than an American dollar coin. The common range of diameters is from 1.5 inches up to 3 inches.

• Edge

Edge can add to the coin’s texture and beauty. You may choose from spur edge, rope-cut edge, oblique-line edge, diamond-cross-cut edge, flat edge, and flat-weave edge.

Custom Coins

Customizing your own coin is not as easy as what you might think. Manufacturers typically ask a lot about the design specifications that you prefer. If you are not familiar with the terms used, you might end up getting an undesired output. Thus, it is important to take time reading design specifications and consider the above-mentioned factors in order to come up with your desired design.

If you’re looking for a firm that can make these coins for you, with the least hassle, it’s best to check out ChallengeCoins4Less.com.

Christian Funeral Services Knoxville, TN

It is never easy to plan for Christian funeral services Knoxville, TN. It’s difficult to say goodbye to a loved one. People go through different grieving processes. Most of the time, tension can add to the stress that the family is already feeling. This article is a guide to help you plan a funeral service while you are in the midst of the healing process.

First of all, before you start making plans for the funeral service ask your family if the deceased left particular directions for his or her own funeral. If so, it would be easier to go on with the process of arranging the funeral and making decisions for the event. Then, find out if the deceased has a burial or funeral insurance policy.

If the deceased made no preparations for his or her own funeral, start the planning process by setting yourself with a right attitude. Making plans for a funeral service will not be a burdensome to you if you can accept the fact that the process can actually aid you and your loved ones through the healing process.

Start thinking that the funeral services Knoxville, TN is in a way a celebration of the life of the deceased. It should be done in a dignified and respectful way but there should also be room for happiness and joy.

When you’re ready to begin with your quest, start looking for funeral homes. Ask your church and friends for recommendation. The staff of any funeral homes is already knowledgeable about the process so they can help you find your way through. You will be taught how to prepare legal documents, obituary and choose a casket. Every part of the memorial service will be discussed. You will also be given directions on how to prepare for the burial.


Now, let’s talk about the minister of the event. Choosing the right speaker is very important because it is the highlight of the funeral service. If the deceased is a member of a church denomination, he or she may want you to ask someone from their church, perhaps his or her pastor, to officiate the service. Even if you don’t go to the same church, it is better to respect the religious belief of the deceased.

If the deceased don’t belong to any church group, you may allow the funeral home to choose the minister who will officiate the funeral services Knoxville, TN. You may also ask the rest of the family decide on what would be the best choice. A family discussion would be proper and appropriate since the officiating minister will perform a large part in the event.

Once the minister is settled, you must sit with him and talk about the details of the service. First, you must talk about the songs that you want to be played during the service. Then, give him poems, readings, or Scripture verses that you want to be included. Afterwards, write a list of singers or musicians whom you want to participate in the event. Then, look for photos of the deceased that you want to be displayed.

Many churches and funeral homes have funeral coordinators. You should talk to the person in charge of funerals before the funeral service begins. Discuss other important funeral details including visitation times, flower arrangements, and visual/audio needs. You might also want to be guided with the repletion arrangements so you won’t have a hard time in gathering the visitors after the burial.

Planning funeral services Knoxville, TN can be stressful especially when you’re still grieving for your loss but it can be made easier if you get the right people to help you.


Looking for a unique emblem for change? A personification of sort for a better tomorrow? If you are an individual or an organization that pays premium for image branding, then we have an answer for you.

Come and choose from a variety of colors, designs and sizes of our rubber bracelets. And we have more for you. Now you can have your advocacy statements or personal statements as heartfelt and uniquely yours as you wish, since there are no limits to the characters. You can also mix and match colours, making these accessories as fun and as entertaining as they can be.

These bracelets set the new challenge of better tomorrow, especially for those who want to initiate change. It is also the answer for a creative slice for those who simply want to advocate the so-called work life balance. This is also the trend among people looking for innovative ways of getting souvenirs for all occasions.

Why rubber bracelets? They are inexpensive and timeless. And the best part, they’re waterproof. This is truly a must for those who go for advocacies- anytime, anywhere people can see, read and even support you in your advocacies. As for those who want to have these rubber bracelets on a personal level, the same applies to them. It even becomes “an attachment” symbol especially among friends and families who would remember you with the statements found in your bracelets.

rubber bracelets

These bracelets are also practical since their size allows one to ship them in the most inexpensive way. Unless one will order in bulk and needs to send it to places for those organizations, then it will be a different story. On the personal level, it is very convenient since everyone just needs to wear it on their wrists. The maintenance is rather affordable too as one can just have it while one takes a bath.

See the many practicalities such bracelets offer? Are you convinced that these are indeed the new icon for a better you? So, what are you waiting for? Be one of us. Let us take the lead in re-shaping the future. Here are some insights from our then clients and customers.

“The bracelets set the new path for us at the office. I am not into yellow but the inspiring story of Lance Armstrong moved me and we would like to help him raise funds for cancer patient and as a way of giving back to the society, we asked them to do similar bands for us”- Lucille, telemarketer

“I love the innovations with rubber bracelets; I chose lavender for women empowerment in our office to commemorate the international women’s day. Lavender is for loyalty and for every woman I call on them to be loyal to themselves-that even they have their own families they still need to give back to themselves and I was amazed how people supported my idea and it made me two trips for these purpose; I’m a trailblazer in the office”- Leila, Union representative

“We are lovers from another country. We were thinking a better souvenir for our wedding that will be easily transported for friends who will not be able to come on the actual day and are less expensive for transport cost. My younger sister recommended these rubber bracelets. I was fascinated with the line [Hug me every single day] along with our nicknames and date of the wedding”- Philipp, mechanical engineer

Inspiring and beautiful testimonials right? If you want to join the bandwagon, do visit our website or talk to any of our personnel for your orders. You may also reach us through phone or email. You may also visit our webpage to see our various designs, choose from them, and eventually pick the sizes suited for your needs. You may likewise avail of our selected statements to fit various occasions. We are open to having your own statements printed on the bracelets themselves – in fact, that’s what most of our clients ask for. Customization is, indeed, the trend nowadays.

For those personalized statements and to avail of accessories with mix-and-match colours, we request that you place your order in advance. How much time do we need exactly? Well, it’d be ideal if you’ll place the order about three (3) to four (4) weeks prior your actual date of use, to guarantee a satisfactory output. After all, it is against our philosophy to rush orders.

We deserve the right to decline orders if we deem quality of work will be compromised. Please understand that our business promise to clients and customers is quality. So if you want to work with us, please also be considerate to the time or period our team needs to deliver your orders with high quality. Rest assured though, that we’ll do our best to accommodate your request.


Author Bio:
These bracelets set the new challenge of better tomorrow, especially for those who want to initiate change. Come and choose from a variety of colors, designs and sizes of our rubber bracelets on the-wristband-factory.

Lanyards’ Long-Term Benefits In Our Businesses As Promotional Items

Nowadays, giving away customized products is considered as one of the corporate marketing strategy trends. It’s usual for us to give away pins, stationery, buttons, mugs, shirts and laces to promote a specific service or product. These items are very affordable but very effective in terms of getting the attention of our customers. This can also result to increased brand recall as more and more people will get to know more about the existence of our business.Visit our website the-lanyard-factory.com to get more idea about lanyard.

For instance, whenever we set up or sponsor an event, we usually require employees to wear company shirts for advertising various products and services to all the guests. Before the guests leave, they will receive mugs, ID laces and pens as promotional items which are purposely intended for us to get a wider advertisement reach and exposure outside the event.

Among the aforementioned promotional items, lanyards are considered to be the most popular because they are the most affordable and convenient to purchase or make. Furthermore, they offer a lot of long term benefits that each of us would enjoy.

1. We may use them for constant company advertisements.

lanyardsUnlike flyers and brochures that will eventually be thrown away or infomercials that could be forgotten over time, neck straps are useful to everyone and we can re-use them for several times as well. Their advertising potential is less likely to dwindle as long as someone is using them because this person can quickly recall us after seeing the name of the company, product or whatever that’s printed on the surface.

2. We can guarantee satisfaction from the customers.

This is another benefit of utilizing neck straps when we promote our business. Most advertisements coming from print and broadcast media only serve as communication channels for us to promote a specific product or service which means that we are only limited to presenting information from these channels.

With the idea of giving away lanyards, along with other promotional items, we become engaged in giving something that everyone can enjoy. This is an effective strategy to appeal to a wider audience and increase potential sales. Through brand recall in terms of using neck straps and word of mouth from audiences who are using these items, we can technically hit “two birds in one stone” from launching a particular marketing campaign at no added costs.

3. We can give them away as promotional items for anyone at all occasions.

ID laces, mugs, shirts and pens can all be given to employees, existing clients and target customers all year round – during holidays, company anniversaries, parties and business gatherings. We can achieve an increased brand recall and recognition if these items were given on events where we are one of the sponsors.

4. We can provide essential information.

Aside from the company’s corporate logo, lanyards can also contain other information such as the company’s telephone number and website. We may also include company tagline so that people can see what we are really aiming for. Due to digital printing technology, it’s now easier for us to include all these information in the customization of neck straps.

5. We can save more money from spending on promotional items.

Since the customization of neck straps is an affordable advertising strategy unlike placements on print and broadcast media, we can save a lot of money that could be spent on other investments. Furthermore, these promotional items are essential in terms of how we want to promote all our services and products. In this case, we are not limited to seeing our product advertisements on television for about a minimum of 15 seconds or in print media where we buy ad placements depending on dimensions.

In addition, we will definitely have to pay more if we want additional minutes or page dimensions for our product advertisements. In addition, we have to follow a wide list of regulations when placing an advertisement through these mediums. With customized neck straps, we can all have a wide variety of choices in terms of effectively promoting our brands. We could go for detailed over plain designs or bigger straps over smaller ones without hurting our pockets.

With all that’s written above, we should maximize the power of what lanyards can bring to the table as promotional items.

Are Cheap Golf Clubs the Same as Counterfeit Ones?

When it comes to learning and becoming better at a sport, a person needs to have the proper equipment. The better your equipment is, the faster you can learn and improve your skills at that particular sport. When it comes to golf, both casual and professional players are always on the hunt for the golf equipment that can enhance their performance on the course. When doing this, most golfers are mindful about the price. There are cheap golf clubs that have a very similar, if not exactly the same quality as that of the expensive ones. They are highly beneficial for many players, especially for beginners. The problem is there are also many counterfeit golf clubs being sold almost everywhere. It is important for each golfer to be able to distinguish a fake club from an original one.

golf ballThere are many cheap golf clubs being sold all over the internet. Though they are less pricey, this does not mean that they are counterfeit. There are three kinds of cheap golf clubs you can opt for. First is the used clubs. Since these are original golf clubs, you can expect to get the same quality and features as those of a new one of the same model. You just have to be cautious when choosing among these pre-loved clubs, though. Do not buy immediately just because they have very low prices compared to the new ones. They can already have wears, scratches and other forms of damages on various parts, especially if they have been used often for a long period of time.

If you do not like used golf clubs or are not able to find ones that only have a few kinks, then you can opt for the clones. There are some manufacturers that legally produce and sell clone golf clubs. These clubs look almost the same as the original ones. This is because the manufacturers make it to the point that the materials they use in producing them are similar with those of the original ones. Some clone golf clubs are even manufactured from the exact same materials that expensive brands use. The difference between clones and the original ones are the quality control and features. Expensive brands are able to ensure this because their production cost is far more costly than those who manufacture clones.

Clones are often mistaken as counterfeit clubs. They are actually legal but their prices are cheaper and they are sold under a different company name than that of the original ones. Counterfeit golf clubs are those made by a different manufacturer but are being sold using the brand name of the manufacturer of the original ones at a far lower price. When choosing to buy clone clubs, you cannot get an exact copy of the branded clubs because makers of original golf clubs patent their design.

golf bagClone and used golf clubs are not your only choices. It is also possible for you to obtain new and original golf clubs at a lower price than the usual. You just need to hunt for stores that sell them at a discounted price. Stores tend to sell golf clubs at a lower price if they have been holding a large inventory of that club model for quite some time already. They also offer large discounts on special holidays. If there is a significant decrease in the price of the materials used in manufacturing those golf clubs, the next batches may be sold at a lower price as well.

You can basically find many cheap golf clubs being sold on the internet today. With these clubs, you will be able to play golf without having to spend as much as the other players do.

Best Characteristics of a Great Motivational Speaker

If you know Eric Thomas, you will realize that here is a man who has dropped out of high school and was homeless. But look at him today – one of the most zealous motivational speaker there is. His famous line that has probably touched countless lives is this: “When you want to succeed as you want to breathe, then you will be successful.”

A motivational speaker is someone whose speeches can inspire the audience. While there may be a lot of such kinds of speakers around, there are few, like Thomas, who really stand out. Anyone can make a speech or encourage another, but not all can be motivational speakers.
Here are the best characteristics that a great motivational speaker possesses:

1.    He is confident.

A great motivational speaker knows both his topic and his audience. He has a good understanding of everything he talks about and how to relate to his audience.

2.    He has personal motivation.

Who wants to listen to someone who gives good speeches but he himself is not motivated? The saying “you should preach what you practice” should ring true in the lives of motivational speakers.

SpeakerA great motivational speaker is able to persuade and motivate an audience when he has a personal drive to stay inspired. This characteristic will help him through difficult times – especially when his audience is unresponsive – and get his listeners to be as optimistic as he is. He has his personal supply of motivation within him that spills out to those he talks to. People who don’t have inner motivation may be able to deliver good speeches but their influence will fall flat.

The best motivational speakers have mastered the art of living and staying motivated. You will know an excellent motivational speaker as evidenced by his past accomplishments and his personal relationships.

3.    He is optimistic.

Event organizers hire motivational speakers to boost morale and bring inspiration. A person who is not inherently optimistic may find it difficult to encourage others during difficult times. A great motivational speaker always sees the silver lining – he always finds a good reason to feel better in spite of what is happening around him and encourages others to do the same. He doesn’t have to try so hard to sound optimistic, he naturally is.

4.    He connects effectively.

The most optimistic and most motivated speaker may not be able to motivate others if he does not know how to engage his audience and connect with them on a personal level. History will show that famous speakers who have roused their audience to action were able to connect with their listeners. Martin Luther King and Nelson Mandela are two of them.

People naturally connect with speakers that they trust. They will listen to someone who is relatable. The best motivational speaker is able to connect with every person in the big crowd in a way that each one feels that the speaker is personally talking to them.

5.    He knows how to use humor.

Good motivational speakers engage their audience using appropriate humor.  When they speak with honesty and humility, people learn to trust what they say. And when the speech is coupled with a good sense of humor, you will have a captivated audience.

6.    He has a good voice.

Like with any speeches, 90% of delivery is all about the voice. A good speaker has a clear voice that resounds through the room, allowing everyone to hear him. Voice projection will spell the success or failure of the speech. Good motivational speakers take time to study on projecting their voices for clarity and emphasis. They learn how to use their words in stride and how to moderate the volume of their voice.

While there may be a lot of wonderful speeches and great messages around, you need the ideal person to deliver them to make them more powerful.

How to get away with foreclosure: Defending yourself the easy way

foreclosureLitigations dealing with Long Island foreclosure defense will give you a lot of trouble. Those will not only strain your coffers, but will also waste a lot of your time, especially when attending formal hearings. Usually, banks are the ones who press claims for your property to be seized, for them to benefit on your home’s real estate value. What if you know that you are not at fault on this case, but the other side is just massing an elaborate way of delaying the process of handing the decision down? Then it’s the time to take on the fastest way out where your victory is assured.

Here are some of the basic rationalizations you can use in the proceedings about your home mortgage that will ensure that your side wins the fight:

•    Showing the court that the transfer of the mortgage is “wrongfully assigned” – creditors may have transferred the mortgage payment to multiple banks and that makes the whole payment process too complicated to trace back. Simply put, the aim of this legal maneuver is to force the prosecution panel turn over a physical form of mortgage payment transfer, else their case does not have proper grounds.

•    Loss of the Original copy of the mortgage note – if the bank filing the case cannot present the master copy of the mortgage note where their claim began, your Long Island foreclosure defense team can immediately set a motion to dump the case outright. However, these banks must have never gained possession of the aforementioned note in the first place.

•    The complainant/s cannot establish the facts of their case – as with handling any kind of judicial proceedings, the prosecution should make sure that they can lay out the truthfulness of their claim. Without this groundwork, the trial cannot even stand on its own, and therefore can be immediately quashed.

•    Banks negligence to provide an affirmation from a certified Attorney – this is a recently added safeguard to protect the interest of the borrowers. Courts of law now implement that the rule that banks must have a legal representative inside any halls of justice when their claims to seize a property is being carried out. If the complainant/s cannot produce an attorney who is a legitimate practitioner regarding mortgage claims, your Long Island foreclosure defense lawyers can invoke that the prosecution’s claims are invalid.

•    Failure to sufficiently establish a correctly transferred ownership of the property – it is also known as the inadequately connected chain of proprietorship to the disputed home. When the banks pressing claim on your estate cannot give the court a properly documented detail on how they got hold of the property that they want to sequester, they will be forced to abandon the case as it will look like they just stole the property from its rightful owner, which is you.

•    The failure of the prosecution team to affirm their legal stand to press claims – The banks who want to grab your land out of a botched mortgage plan must first made clear to the plaintiff that they are can legally claim the property they want to seize. If they cannot do this, the legality of the case can be questioned.

These Long Island foreclosure defense basics are just guides for you to have an idea how to wiggle your way out of the problem if you have already identified the problem with your property. It’s still up to the evidence you will present to the court if your efforts to fend off the attempts to legally take away your property will succeed. Be ready with what the prosecution might throw your way and remember these tips if you see an opening on their attacks.

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